Stem cells are cells that can give birth to every cell and tissue of a newly born organism. They can be obtained from an egg cell, an embryo or from cord blood of a newborn but also from any human, even an adult. In the latter case we obtain the so-called mesenchymal stem cells.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) are cells with unique abilities of self-renewal and transformation into other cells which human tissues, such as nerves, muscles, bones, or blood, are built. Mesenchymal stem cells are present in human body throughout the whole life, but as time passes their potential for self-renewal and number decrease, and their replacement is disturbed. That is why we get older.
Stem cells have the ability to recognize damaged tissue and repair it. When administered into a given tissue, they take its form. When administered into bone tissue, they take the form of bone cells, and into muscle tissue – of muscles.
This way stem cells participate in tissue regeneration. Depending on the signal they receive, they can rebuild blood vessels, regenerate scars, damaged nerves, contribute to wound healing, and inhibit inflammatory and immune responses. With age, cells in our tissues get damaged. This is also the case when we are injured or ill. In these situations, our own stem cells are activated to replace dead cells and repair damaged tissues.
Several sources have been identified from which mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated. They are present i.e. in skin, muscle tissue, adipose tissue and in blood. Most commonly they are obtained from adipose tissue and blood.
Stem cells are now used as a standard element of treatment of more than 70 diseases in oncology, haematology, or regenerative medicine. They are used to treat both children and adults. About a month after the procedure, small wrinkles are visibly softer, skin colour is smoother and even, and skin density, tension and elasticity improve.
The procedure involves taking from the patient blood or adipose tissue from which, after special preparation, mesenchymal stem cells (PBSC – Peripheral Blood Stem Cells or ADSC – Adipose-Derived Stem Cells) are obtained. They are administered locally by intradermal injections to areas that require regeneration. Since the material comes from the patient’s own body, it cannot cause irritation or allergic reactions in people who use it.